Overview of Hastelloy X Powder

Hastelloy X powder is a nickel-chromium-iron-molybdenum alloy powder with excellent high temperature strength, oxidation resistance, and fabricability. This guide provides a comprehensive overview of Hastelloy X powder, including types, characteristics, applications, specifications, suppliers, installation, operation, maintenance, how to choose suppliers, pros and cons, and FAQs.

Overview of Hastelloy X Powder

Hastelloy X is a nickel-based superalloy powder used primarily in high-temperature applications up to 1150°C. Key features of Hastelloy X powder include:

  • Excellent high-temperature strength and creep resistance
  • Good oxidation and corrosion resistance
  • High thermal fatigue strength
  • Good fabricability like welding, brazing, and machining
  • Can be made into various product forms like wire, rod, sheet, tube

Some key applications of Hastelloy X powder include gas turbine components, rocket engine parts, heat exchangers, and furnace components among others.

Hastelloy X gets its high-temperature strength from solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening by coherent precipitates like Ni3(Ti,Al) called gamma prime. The addition of Mo, W, Co provides solid solution strengthening.

The high chromium and iron content imparts excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance to the alloy. The powder metallurgy route allows making complex parts with fine grains and uniform microstructure.

Types of Hastelloy X Powder

Hastelloy X powder is available in various types depending on composition, powder size, morphology, and manufacturing process:

Table 1: Types of Hastelloy X Powder

TypeCompositional VariantsParticle SizeMorphologyManufacturing Process
StandardNi-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo15-45 micronsSpherical, irregularGas atomization
Fine gradeNi-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo10-22 micronsSphericalGas atomization
UltrafineNi-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo1-10 micronsSphericalPlasma rotating electrode process
Low carbonNi-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo + low C15-45 micronsSpherical, irregularGas atomization
Custom alloysNi-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo-X (X= Co, W, Ta, Nb etc.)10-45 micronsSpherical, irregularGas atomization

The standard grade with 15-45 micron particle size is most widely used. But for printing fine resolution parts, ultrafine 1-10 micron powder is preferred. The low carbon variants help to minimize strain-age cracking issues during welding and heat treatment. Custom alloys with additions like Co, W, Ta, Nb provide tailored properties.

Hastelloy X Powder

Characteristics of Hastelloy X Powder

Some key characteristics of Hastelloy X powder are:

Table 2: Characteristics of Hastelloy X Powder

CompositionNickel: Balance, Chromium: 8-10%, Iron: 15-20%, Molybdenum: 8-10%, Cobalt: 0-2%, Tungsten: 0-2%, Carbon: 0.05-0.15%, Manganese: 0-1%, Silicon: 0-0.5%, Sulfur: 0-0.015%, Phosphorus: 0-0.02%
Density8.22 g/cc
Melting point1350-1400°C
ColorMetallic gray
Crystal structureFace centered cubic
Powder particle size15-45 microns typically
Powder morphologyPredominantly spherical, some irregular
FlowabilityExcellent due to spherical shape
Apparent densityTypically 4.0-4.5 g/cc
Tap densityTypically 4.5-5.0 g/cc

The properties make Hastelloy X suitable for additive manufacturing, thermal spray, composite production, and press and sinter powder metallurgy.

Applications of Hastelloy X Powder

Some major applications of Hastelloy X powder include:

Table 3: Applications of Hastelloy X Powder

Jet engine partsCombustor cans, burner cans, transition ducts, spray bars, fuel nozzles, flame holders
Rocket engine partsCombustion chamber, nozzle throat, liners
Gas turbinesHot section blades and vanes, combustor liners
Heat exchangersFor high temperature gases and corrosive fluids
Furnace componentsTrays, fixtures, fasteners for heat treating furnaces
Chemical processingValves, piping, reaction vessels for corrosive chemicals
Medical implantsOrthopedic implants due to biocompatibility
Additive manufacturingAerospace and industrial components, tooling
Thermal spray coatingsTo resist wear, corrosion and high temperatures

The excellent strength and oxidation resistance allow the use of Hastelloy X powder in the most demanding applications with temperatures up to 1150°C.

Specifications and Design Standards for Hastelloy X Powder

Hastelloy X powder conforms to the following specifications and standards:

Table 4: Specifications and Standards for Hastelloy X Powder

AMS 5754Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Bars, Forgings, and Rings 62Ni – 21.5Cr – 9.0Mo – 1.5Co – 0.6W – 3.0Fe
AMS 5837Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat Resistant, Extrusions 57Ni – 23Cr – 8Mo – 1.5Co – 0.7W – 3.3Fe
ASTM B435Standard Specification for UNS N06002, UNS N06230, UNS N12160, and UNS R30556 Plate, Sheet, and Strip
AMS 5882Nickel Alloy, Corrosion and Heat-Resistant, Powder for Thermal Spraying Applications
ISO 21809-2Petroleum and natural gas industries – External coatings for buried or submerged pipelines used in pipeline transportation systems – Part 2: Single layer fusion-bonded epoxy coatings

These specifications cover the nominal composition, mechanical properties, grain size, hardness, and impurity limits for various Hastelloy X product forms.

Suppliers and Pricing of Hastelloy X Powder

Some of the major global suppliers of Hastelloy X powder include:

Table 5: Hastelloy X Powder Suppliers and Indicative Pricing

SupplierProduct FormsParticle SizeIndicative Pricing
SandvikPowder, wire15-45 microns$50-60/kg
Carpenter TechnologyPowder, wire, rod10-45 microns$55-65/kg
Praxair Surface TechnologiesPowder15-45 microns$52-62/kg
HoganasPowder15-45 microns$54-64/kg
American ElementsPowder1-10 microns$80-100/kg

Prices vary based on order quantity, exact composition and particle size. Custom alloys with extra elements cost 20-30% more than standard grades. Ultrafine powder under 10 microns costs 50-80% higher compared to 15-45 micron size.

Installing and Operating Hastelloy X Powder Equipment

Key aspects related to installing and operating equipment for Hastelloy X powder handling and processing:

Table 6: Hastelloy X Powder Equipment Installation and Operation

Storage and handlingStore in cool, dry area in sealed containers to prevent contamination and oxidation. Use inert gas while handling powder.
Mixing and blendingUse tumbler mixers for 15-60 minutes to homogenize custom powder blends.
CompactionCold compaction in dies at pressures up to 1000 MPa. Warm compaction may aid particle bonding.
Debinding and sinteringDebind in hydrogen at 500-600°C and sinter at 1080-1175°C for 1-3 hours under vacuum or inert atmosphere.
SafetyUse PPE, ensure adequate ventilation and respiratory protection from fine metallic powder dust.
MaintenanceCheck equipment seals, gaskets, valves, container linings periodically. Replace worn parts proactively.
Process monitoringMeasure powder characteristics like particle size, morphology, flow rate regularly for quality control.

Proper PPE, storage, handling and atmospheric control are essential for quality powder processing to minimize contamination and maintain consistent results.

Hastelloy X Powder

Maintenance of Hastelloy X Powder Equipment

Regular maintenance of Hastelloy X powder equipment is critical for maximizing uptime and attaining repeatable performance:

Table 7: Maintenance Guidelines for Hastelloy X Powder Equipment

EquipmentMaintenance ActivitiesFrequency
Powder storage containersInspect for corrosion, leaksMonthly
Powder handling systemCheck valves, sealsMonthly
MixersCheck paddles, liners for wearMonthly
Compaction pressLubricate rams and guides, inspect diesWeekly
Sintering furnaceInspect heating elements, insulation6 months
Gas supply systemsLeak test connections3 months
Powder recovery systemClean filtersMonthly

It is recommended to establish a maintenance logbook to track equipment history for identifying problems early. Any corroded or worn components should be replaced immediately to prevent powder contamination.

How to Select a Hastelloy X Powder Supplier

Key considerations for selecting a Hastelloy X powder supplier:

Table 8: Hastelloy X Powder Supplier Selection Criteria

Powder qualitySpherical morphology, clean surface, controlled particle size distribution, no contamination
Composition controlTight compositional tolerances, certified analysis reports
Production capacityAbility to produce required powder quantities reliably
Customization capabilityAlloy modification, particle size and shape control
Quality systemsISO 9001 and AS9100 certification, strict quality control
Regulatory complianceRoHS, REACH, PFAS free materials declaration
Delivery timeAbility to deliver fast reliably
Customer supportTechnical expertise for material selection and processing guidance
PricingCost effective and transparent pricing, discounts for bulk orders
Payment termsFlexible payment options

Choosing suppliers with strict quality control, global certification and strong technical expertise can minimize production issues and rework related to substandard powder.

Pros and Cons of Hastelloy X Powder

Table 9: Advantages and Limitations of Hastelloy X Powder

Excellent high temperature strengthRelatively high material cost
Good oxidation and corrosion resistanceLower ductility than stainless steels
High thermal fatigue strengthComposition control is critical
Easy to weld and machineSusceptible to strain-age cracking during welding or heat treatment
Can be alloyed to tailor propertiesLower fracture toughness than nickel superalloys
Many product forms availableDifficult to cast, forge or extrude
Used for diverse applicationsRequires controlled atmospheres during powder processing

The main tradeoff is the higher cost versus superior high-temperature performance compared to stainless steels. But capabilities like additive manufacturing help mitigate the fabricability issues and allow producing complex geometries.


Q: What is Hastelloy X used for?

A: Hastelloy X is used in applications like jet engine combustion cans, rocket engine nozzles, gas turbines, chemical processing equipment where temperatures reach up to 1150°C along with oxidation or corrosion.

Q: Is Hastelloy X stainless steel?

A: No, Hastelloy X is a nickel-based superalloy. It has much better high temperature strength than stainless steels due to nickel and other alloying elements.

Q: What is the difference between Hastelloy X and Hastelloy C?

A: Hastelloy C has higher ductility and fracture toughness owing to its lower strength. Hastelloy X has better high temperature strength and hardness due to additions of Mo, W, Co.

Q: What is the temperature limit of Hastelloy X?

A: The maximum temperature limit for Hastelloy X is about 1150°C. At higher temperatures, excessive oxidation and mechanical strength reduction occurs.

Q: Is Hastelloy X weldable?

A: Yes, Hastelloy X can be welded using processes like GTAW, GMAW and SMAW. Care must be taken to avoid strain-age cracking and conduct post-weld heat treatment.

Q: What is powder Hastelloy X used for?

A: Powder Hastelloy X enables additive manufacturing of complex parts, thermal spray coatings, and powder metallurgy like metal injection molding. It provides flexibility in composition and processing.

Q: Is Hastelloy X resistant to hydrochloric acid?

A: Yes, Hastelloy X offers excellent resistance to hydrochloric acid even at elevated temperatures owing to high chromium and molybdenum content. It outperforms stainless steels in HCl resistance.

Q: Is Hastelloy cheaper than stainless steel?

A: No, Hastelloy X is more expensive than stainless steels on a per pound basis owing to extensive alloying. But it offers vastly superior high temperature strength and corrosion resistance.

Q: What is the density of Hastelloy X?

A: The density of Hastelloy X is around 8.22 g/cc, which is marginally higher than stainless steels due to nickel, iron and molybdenum content.

In summary, Hastelloy X powder is an indispensable material for extreme temperature applications up to 1150°C needing good environmental resistance. With controlled processing, it enables high performance parts production via additive manufacturing and powder metallurgy. This guide covers all essential aspects of utilizing Hastelloy X powder for critical components and coatings.

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